Spotting Notes Fall 2016
When I accepted the role of President of the SCGC about a year ago, I don’t think I fully appreciated what a challenge it would be to get up to speed on the many issues we creators are facing in this Digital Age. In fact, the more I learn, the more I realize how complex and layered the issues are.
We do know one thing, however: the promise of the Internet has been a broken one for most creators. Many of us are earning less today than we did five years ago. If the main outlet for your work is streaming and digital services, you’ve probably noticed a significant drop in performing rights income. The songwriting community has been hit hard, and the consensus seems to be that media composers aren’t far behind. While the Performing Rights Organizations (PROs) are now collecting from the major streaming services, (Netflix, Hulu, and Amazon, for example), the numbers are way down compared with those from terrestrial broadcasts.
Some say we’re just in a period of adjustment, and that we should soon see improvement. Others find it hard to believe that the days of decent downstream revenue from our work will ever return. Where is the truth? How do we protect ourselves against a not-so-happy outcome?
If a project is commissioned by an OTT (over-the-top service, such as Netflix), it may never be seen on traditional terrestrial television. If the downstream revenue can’t be counted on, the composer will have to negotiate higher upfront fees for their music. In light of the fact that those fees have dropped significantly over the past ten years (the SCGC’s Industry Baseline Study of 2013 shows an up to a 50% decline), it may prove quite a challenge to get fees up to the levels they’ll need to be.
Performing rights revenue is a critical component of a composer’s income. It enables us to weather the inevitable dry periods between projects, and to continue to develop and build our creative and technological toolkit. In this new digital reality, our very ability to make a sustainable living is being challenged.
In the meantime, the Liberals are back in office. We knew change was coming, but who would have imagined that the Department of Heritage would be mounting a complete Cultural Policy Review in 2016/17? A thorough reassessment of Canada’s laws, institutions, policies and programs that surround our cultural economy is currently underway. There has been a series of public consultations, with an online questionnaire for Canadians to submit. The next set of consultations will be under the heading “Strengthening Canadian Content, Discovery and Export in a Digital World.”
All industry stakeholders have a voice in this review, and large corporate interests can lobby on their own behalves for a more profitable landscape. Without the deep pockets required to effectively lobby government, it’s a challenge for media composers to get our message heard and understood in Ottawa. But we’re working on it. Through the SCGC’s involvement with ACCORD (all the music related organizations connected with SOCAN) and the Creators’ Copyright Coalition (CCC), we are taking steps to ensure that creators’ voices are heard through all the noise. The message is simple: there needs to be a rethinking of Copyright Board policies if creators are to be able to continue earning a living for their creative work. If creators aren’t fairly compensated for their work, we’ll soon be a generation of hobbyists, people with a passion for what we do, but who must work other jobs to subsidize our now part-time work in the creative industries. How will the quality of our creative output ever come close to that of artists who are dedicated to their craft on a full-time basis? This would be a loss for audiences as well as detrimental to the quality of Canadian cultural works in general.
On the U.S. front, creators have heard all kinds of bad news, too much to report on in this space at this time. Suffice to say, our American counterparts have suffered painful blows in the form of several rulings by the Department Of Justice that are not favourable to creators. What’s bad for them is bad for us and for creators internationally, and many non-creator voices (often labels, publishers, and multi-national corporations) are seen to speak on our behalf. This is why our membership in Music Creators North America (MCNA) is so important. There’s strength in numbers, and we believe that only through joining forces with our sisters and brothers abroad can we effect positive change for creators.
As individuals, though, let’s make it our personal mission not only to pay more attention but to engage actively in the larger trends that affect us all. The way we respond to these challenges both collectively and in our own careers will have far-reaching effects for the whole SCGC community, and indeed will shape the future for our industry.
On September 12, 2016, Tony Zhou’s YouTube channel, “Every Frame A Painting,” published a video titled The Marvel Symphonic Universe. The video begins on the streets of Vancouver, where pedestrians are asked if they can sing the music from the films Star Wars, James Bond, and Harry Potter. This proves to be an easy task for the interview subjects, who dutifully recreate the major themes, note for note. However, when Zhou poses a follow-up question, asking if anyone can sing something from a Marvel movie, not a single person is able to respond.
The rest of the video lays out a theory to explain the results of this experiment.
Zhou argues that Marvel is not challenging our expectations with their musical choices. The filmmakers often opt for a “lowest common denominator” approach to how the film’s score interacts with the onscreen action. This is clarified through several examples that show how funny music is paired with a funny scene, sad music with a sad scene, and so on. Zhou goes on to breakdown how temp music reinforces this style of risk-averse film scoring by comparing temp tracks with final scores in several Hollywood/Marvel films. The similarities are uncanny. The video essay concludes by suggesting that Marvel scores are not memorable because they lack emotional richness. They have relied on safe filmmaking that often requires composers to imitate temp tracks in order to continue reworking conventional Hollywood scoring styles and techniques.
Shortly after this video was released, a response, titled A Theory of Film Music, was published by Dan Golding. In his video, Golding outlines another reason for the shift towards “forgettable, unoriginal” music in modern Hollywood films. He begins by arguing that the usage of temp tracks is not a new trend, and therefore not the main cause for the modern shift in scoring style. There are some great examples, comparing Star Wars to Korngold’s King’s Row and Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring. Since the lack of originality in some film music is not unique to contemporary blockbusters, Golding points to technology as the force most influencing the sound of Marvel’s film music. He argues that because short, sharp sounds were easier to replicate realistically in the early days of fully digital music, audiences have been conditioned by decades of scores that featured heavy percussion, brass, and string ostinatos, the “Hans Zimmer Style.” As Golding puts it, “the computer makes music lean in different directions.”
My summary of these two highly detailed videos has been blunt and brief. Both videos were circulated on the discuss list in September, and the links are included below. If you haven’t already, I highly recommend viewing them both.
While both videos make some convincing points, I feel that they are lacking the composer’s perspective. First, I’d like to address the underlying methodology for the aesthetic judgement of film music. Zhou’s video focuses on memorable melodies and emotional impact as the criteria for determining whether or not a film’s score is effective and/or artistically valuable. Golding’s response judges film music’s worth by its originality. In both cases, the film score is assessed as a piece of music rather than a part of the larger artistic creation that is the film. This can lead to a critical approach that unjustly favors the style of film scoring that sounds the most like popular concert music, i.e. William’s neoclassical, romantic style. In addition, when the score is placed in context within the film, its function is limited to emotional effectiveness. This is a bias that shifts focus away from the film score’s most exciting, sophisticated narrative functions. The opportunities for film music to reveal cognitive, psychological, and subtextual ideas are what excite me most as a film composer. These functions are a crucial part of developing a critical approach to film score analysis.
Does the absence of a memorable, hummable melody mean that a film score is somehow less effective or sophisticated? Not necessarily. I believe that it is the storytelling intention rather than the musical complexity that is most important in a film score. In episode 39 of the “Song Exploder” podcast, Brian Tyler describes the process of writing the Ultron theme
for Avengers: Age Of Ultron. The cue fits the mold laid out in Golding’s video. It has rhythmic strings, aggressive percussion, and bombastic brass. However, Tyler made several subtle choices designed to capture aspects of the character of Ultron, the main villain in the film. A repeating piano figure is doubled on a second out-of-tune piano and uses rhythmic anticipation to create a “broken clock” vibe. Ultron is an artificial intelligence pieced together with broken machinery, housing a fractured logical system. Tyler continues to extend this idea with “wrong” notes mixed into the string runs, and an underlying layer of distorted, detuned, machine-like electric guitar.
This is just one small example of how a skilled composer works within the limitations of modern Hollywood filmmaking style in order to use the music to add depth to the storytelling power of the film. There is no doubt that the process of demoing and editing made possible by digital technology has altered the way composers work. However, we would be wrong to issue a blanket dismissal of simple music as forgettable or unoriginal. A singable melody is a purely musical component, but the way that a melody is placed, altered, and rearranged throughout a film should be the focus of a critical film score analysis.
I think many of us would agree that temp music can be a hindrance. Both videos do a great job of illuminating some of the problems with modern temp tracks, with one major oversight: the music editor. Ronald Sadoff’s 2006 article for Popular Music provides a great overview of the music editor’s role in the process of creating a temp track, including some interesting case studies. One such case is the “Lena’s Story” cue from the 2003 film Tears of the Sun, music scored by Hans Zimmer and edited by Roy Prendergast.
According to Prendergast, Fuqua’s directions for the scene, “Lena’s Story,” were to elicit a general sadness and tragedy for the situation, but also to sustain an element of warmth. Prendergast realised that the music would be most effective if it played the character of the situation, not of Lt. Water’s and Dr. Hendrick’s relationship.
Here we see the music editor taking the director’s ideas and applying them to the design of the temp track, and ultimately the final score. Prendergast goes on to describe how he used a cue from Alan Silvestri’s score for the film What Lies Beneath. The cue was not simply placed under the scene to set the right mood. Prendergast edited around the elements of the cue that Silvestri used to represent the supernatural elements of What Lies Beneath (high trills in the strings) that would not work for this scene in Tears of the Sun. He also considered the placement of the music in the scene.
[The music starts] over the previous scene’s couple, so that the music, in a sense, could attach itself to them, so that when you came upon the Willis and Bellucci characters, it was already there and has less of an impact. Music tends to attach itself where it starts, and if you start it on Willis and Bellucci, subconsciously the listener thinks, “This is important, this is about them.”
Clearly, Prendergast is working to solve the unique dramatic challenges of the film early in the process of creating the temp track. In the article, Sadoff provides a detailed musical analysis of the similarities and differences between Silvestri’s cue and Zimmer’s final score. Zimmer follows much of the blueprint laid out by Prendergast, but crafts his cue to work around the dialogue while creating a “surreal sound, eliciting the reflective disillusionment of the moment, as opposed to a quiet longing in the temp.” This is an example of how a skilled music editor can strengthen the communication between a director and a composer. The process of creating a temp track can add a layer of collaboration that strengthens the effectiveness of the final score.
The Marvel Symphonic Universe has been viewed over four million times. It is great to see that there is public interest in critical analysis of modern Hollywood film scoring. As film composers, we are intimately familiar with how musical trends, film scoring styles, and technology are constantly shifting and changing the way we work. The one element that remains timeless is the power of storytelling. Regardless of how memorable or forgettable our melodies may be, it is crucial that we remain focused on achieving effective dramatic storytelling as a part of the filmmaking team.
Bonus Video: AFI Masterclass with John Williams and Steven Spielberg. Skip to 18:00 for a story about the temp track for Jaws:
Steven Spielberg & John Williams – The Masterclass from Overlook Events on Vimeo.
Theory Of Film MusicSadoff, Ronald H.: “The role of the music editor and the ‘temp track’ as blueprint for the score, source music, and source music of films.” Popular Music Vol. 25.2 (2006): 165-183
Avengers “Age Of Ultron
Post-Production Like Mom Used to Make It:
Scoring X Company by Ari Posner
Post-production in television has many moving parts, music being only one of them. A lot of creativity and coordination have to take place, usually in pretty short order, for the bar to remain high while still meeting the demands of the deadline and the budget.
As CBC’s X Company moves into the post-production phase of its third and final season, I am reminded once again of what a pleasure it can be to travel on a smooth sailing ship. The post-schedule for the series is extremely well coordinated by our post-supervisor Richard Anobile. And the show runners Mark Ellis and Stephanie Morgenstern truly enjoy every aspect of the process, right down to very detailed spotting sessions and music reviews. Our music team consists of two composers: myself and Amin Bhatia, along with music editor Joe Mancuso and music supervisor Andrea Higgins of Arpix Media.
The procedure we follow is not a new one by a long shot, although in this day and age, with technology constantly reshaping the way we work, I do see more and more deviation from what I’d consider to be a proven method. Once we receive a locked cut from the picture editor, we sit down for a spotting session with one or both show runners, one of the producers and our music editor. At this point, we watch the show and compile a very detailed list of cues needed for the episode with much creative discussion along the way. Music ins and outs are quickly jotted down along with a whirlwind of thoughts about mood, shape and tone, as well as key plot points to acknowledge. X Company doesn’t use a whole lot in the way of licensed songs, but there is the occasional need for period source music. These scenes are noted carefully and requests are sent off to the music supervisor right away. Our spotting sessions usually take two to three hours and in today’s world, with the crunch on deadlines and client expectations high as ever, it sometimes seems like a luxury to have this face-to-face time with the show’s creators before diving into the actual writing.
Next we spend some time going through the notes with our music editor and starting to make decisions about who will do what. When it comes to composing teams, I’ve seen some who literally work together on everything, all with one rig. Sitting in the same room, they take turns at the helm and bounce ideas off each other as they go. On X Company, however, our method is quite the opposite. We divvy up the cue list and head to our separate bat caves for the next seven days or so to write.
The music editor will cover the areas of the show that can work well with our existing library of cues. These are usually shorter segments, transitions and other spots where there is no need to reinvent the wheel. One thing that helps a great deal to this end is making sure that the picture editors have up-to-date stereo mixes of all our approved cues. They can then pull temp music exclusively from our library although, every once in a while the Bourne Identity still manages to rear its tenacious head. Usually, approximately one third of the score can be covered with pre-existing cues, and then Amin and I will divide and hopefully conquer the rest. During the week, the music team will stay in close contact with each other, sending sketches back and forth so that we can all be aware of keys and tempos.
As we get closer to our music preview day, we send all the new cues to the music editor so that he can conform and prep the show for audition. At this point we break all the cues out into ten stereo stems that have been predetermined by function: two stems dedicated to various leads, two dedicated to different kinds of pads and so on. We adhere strictly to this format throughout the season, so that we always know where to find things quickly. This can be a lifesaver in a music presentation (or on the mix stage) when there’s an element in the score that’s rubbing someone the wrong way. A cue that’s not working for the client might actually be completely fine after muting the bagpipes, which of course are isolated on stem one!
At the music presentation, (the point where our fantasy of being brilliant comes to an end), we go through the show from top to bottom with the creators, the show’s producers Kerry Appleyard and Lesley Grant of Temple Street and Sarah Adams, our network executive. We then take careful notes on any changes or rewrites requested by the clients. Usually at this point, there is at least one “fix” day, sometimes two, already planned in the schedule before we have to start the whole process again on the next episode. It is not uncommon, however, as we get further into the schedule, that things tighten up a little bit, and we will have to juggle more than one episode at a time, finishing fixes on one while starting to spot and write for the next.
In keeping with our tried and tested method, one other luxury that is afforded to us by the X Company post-schedule is the chance to do an interlock. This is a term that I don’t hear too often these days. It means that before the final mix playback for the producers and network
execs, the entire show is auditioned just for the creators in the mix theatre. As we all sit in one room with the topnotch sound team from Technicolor, we get the chance to preview the whole episode with all music, SFX and dialogue/ADR in place. This is a wonderful opportunity for everyone to hear their work fit into the larger context of the show and flag any problem areas prior to the real audition for the broadcaster.
Post-production, by its very nature can be a bit harrowing. There’s a lot riding on us at the end of the chain, especially with air-dates looming near. But one thing I’ve learned from X Company is that good old-fashioned face-time, organization, and cooperation can’t really be replaced. The technology will always continue to get better and in turn demand of us that we try to do our jobs faster. But in the end, if we are lucky enough to have a post-schedule that allows us to slow down and communicate with each other, it can’t help but benefit the end result.
According to the 1976 US Copyright Act, authors can cancel a copyright assignment 35 years after initial publication. Famed film composer Ennio Morricone is now trying to reclaim rights to 3 of his scores, while the publisher in question makes the dubious claim that they were “works made for hire”, and thus the publisher is the actual “author”. This is a great example of the continued struggle between creators and corporations for the control of copyright.
Consent decrees were established in 1941 to thwart anti-competitive collusion between ASCAP and BMI, allowing broadcasters big and small equitable access to music. However, massive technological shifts over the last 75 years have completely changed the power dynamic between the Performing Rights Organizations (which represent writers and publishers) and the “new broadcasters” like tech giants Apple, Google and Spotify etc. Indeed, the tiny payments to creators from streaming companies has been a very public concern for many years, but continues to be enabled by the consent decrees. Unfortunately, the US Department of Justice (DOJ) announced on August 4, 2016 that they would not rework the consent decrees, but also reinterpreted the decrees to include a 100 per cent (full work) licensing requirement, which would further erode negotiating power for royalty rates and disincentivize collaboration between songwriters from different PROs. On September 16, 2016, a federal Judge rejected the DOJ’s interpretation BMI’s consent decree, and on November 11th the DOJ filed an appeal.
The tension between music creators and the corporations that have built themselves on cheap content continues on. While at the moment this is primarily an issue for songwriters, the implications for the the AV community loom large. For more information:
In May, President John Welsman and Chair Marvin Dolgay attended two days of MCNA and CIAM meetings in New York. This link will give you an oversight of the topics of discussion and will give you a feel for the global creators network and alliance that the SCGC is now a part of:
Compiled by Janal Bechthold
Toronto International Film Festival: The SCGC and TIFF presented the masterclass “Mark Korven Talks the Witch at TIFF” which included a talk about the compositional process of scoring the film as Mark demonstrated some of the unusual and custom made instruments used during the creation of the score.
Mikel Hurwitz presented at an SCGC seminar on the life and process of being an assistant to A-list composer Danny Elfman, and tips on what it takes to be a successful assistant.
Lesley Barber has been appointed to the executive committee for the Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences Music Branch after her recent invitation to join the Academy. Judith Gruber-Stitzer was invited to join the Short Films & Feature Animation Branch.
Alliance for Women Film Composers’ inagural concert “Women Who Score: Soundtracks Live” included music from Lesley Barber’s score to “Manchester By the Sea”.
CFC Slaight Music Residency: Darren Fung coordinator of the CFC Slaight Music Bootcamp. 2016 Slaight Music Residents include SCGC members Spencer Creaghan, Rebecca Everett, Chris Reineck, and Neil Haverty
SOCAN Young AV Composer Awards: winners are based on merit and selected a jury . This year’s jury members include Judith Gruber-Stitzer, Steph Copeland, and Darren Fung.
Virtual Reality Toronto: David Federman appeared on a panel discussing immersive audio.
48 Hour Film Project – Toronto
Best Musical Score
Gagan Singh “Undone”
Outstanding Original Main Title Theme Music (Nomination)
Robert Duncan “The Whispers”
Hamilton Film Festival
Best Music Category (Nomination)
Erica Procunier “Scratch”
Hollywood Music in Media Awards
Best Original Score – Independent Film (Nomination)
Isaias Garcias “Quarries”
SOCAN Young AV Composer Awards
Best Original Theme – opening or closing
1st – Emily Klassen
2nd – Spencer Creaghan
Best Original Score – Fiction
2nd – Isaias Garcia
Best Original Score – Animated
1st– Lora Bidner
3rd – Toby Sherriff
Calgary Film Festival:
Lesley Barber “Manchester By the Sea”
Dennis Burke “A New Moon Over Tohoku”
Steph Copeland “Let Her Out”
Medhat Hanbali “Finger Night”
Mitch Lee “This is What It Souunds Like Falling Out of Love With You”
Tom Third “Cheer Up”
Erica Procunier “Burns Point”
Community Film Festival:
Donald Quan and Janal Bechthold “Gods In Shackles”
Directors Guild Awards Festival:
Brent Belke “Ninth Floor”
Steve Cupani “Big Little Girl”
Mychael Danna “Remember”
Mark Korven “Guantanamo’s Child: Omar Khadr”
John Welsman “Painted Land: In Search of the Group of Seven”
Steph Copeland “Bed of the Dead”
Open Roof Film Festival:
Chris Thornborrow “Sleeping Giant”
Reel Asian Film Festival:
David Federman “The Suitcase”
Semana Internacional de Cine de Valladolid Seminci:
David Federman “Cruzar el umbral”
Sudbury International Film Festival:
Erica Procunier “Mariner”
Toronto After Dark Film Festival:
Steph Copeland “Bed of the Dead”
Steph Copeland “Let Her Out”
Toronto Independent Film Festival:
John Welsman “Beyond What Remains”
Toronto International Film Festival:
Erica Procunier “Mariner”
Adam White & Jamie Shields “The Skyjackers Tale”
Vancouver International Film Festival:
Lesley Barber “Manchester By the Sea”
Edo Van Breeman “Hello Destroyer”
Dennis Burke “A New Moon Over Tohoku”
Ben Fox “Emma”
Ben Fox “Your Mother and I”
Doug Johnson “River Blue”
Gary Sill “Here Nor There”
Schaun Tozer “Spirit Unforgettable”
Darren Fung “Gun Runners” – limited release
Jihwoan Ahn “Pearl Harbour – Into the Arizona” (PBS)
Robert Duncan “Timeless” (ABC)
Darren Fung “The Great Human Odyssey” (PBS)
John Herberman “Bookaboo” Season 4 (CBC)
Catalin Marin “Undercover in Isis” (CBC)
Neil Parfitt & Carl Lennox “Ranger Rob” (Treehouse)
Simon Poole “Death of a Comet” (Science Channel)
Tom Third “Shoot the Messenger” (CBC)
OTHER RELEASES AND NEWS
Vikas Kohli is the artistic director for the Monster Rock Orchestra who performed at a public festival in Young Dundas Square.
Elizabeth Hannan wrote the article “Creating Seamless Loops” published by Designing Music Now. http://www.designingmusicnow.com/2016/08/22creating-seamless-loops/
Nicholas Stirling as Music Director composed music for “Follow Your Heart”, a
Middle Eastern dance show created by Toronto’s Evolution Dance Theatre.
Erica Procunier’s short film “Princess Jack” was released on CBC Docs online. http://www.cbc.ca/shortdocs/
Jeff Johnston was featured on the NFB Website “Settling Scores: Q&A with Composer Jeff Johnston”, looking at his process of composing and recording the score to “The Mystery of the Secret Room”.
The Toronto Symphony performed Maxime Goulet’s work “On Halloween Night”
SCGC Member Appreciation
Recognizing milestones of the Guild’s membership
10 + Years
Chris Ainscough, Peter Allen, Kevork Andonian, Duane Andrews, Steffan Andrews,Leon Aronson, Luc Arsenault, Elizabeth Baird, Aaron Bales, Lesley Barber, Janal Bechthold, Hal Beckett, Brent Belke, Geoff Bennett, Michael Berec,Amin Bhatia, Doug Blackley,Todd Booth, George Botly, Robert Buckley, Dennis Burke, Ray Fabi, Eric Cadesky,Tristan Capacchione, David Carey-Clarke,Rob Carli, Clandro Cautillo, Graeme Coleman, Serge Cote, Michael Creber, Michel Cusson, Evelyne Datl, Victor Davies, Marvin Dolgay, Robert Duncan,Nick Dyer, Adrian Ellis, Micky Erbe, Shawn Ferris, Charlie Finlay, Greg Fisher, Martin Foster, Bruce Fowler, Michael Freedman, Terry Frewer, Darren Fung,Yuri Gorbachow, Martin Gotfrit, Maxime Goulet, Edward Henderson, John Herberman, Paul Hoffert, Gia Ionesco, Simon Kendall, Gary Koftinoff, Glenn Morley, Peter Mundinger, Yuri Sazonoff, Nicholas Schnier, Jay Semko, John Sereda, Mike Shields, Lawrence Shragge, John Sievert, J.Gary Sill,Bill Skolnik, Jacek Sobieraj, Maribeth Solomon, Meiro Stamm, Nicholas Stirling, Phil Strong, Evelyn Stroobach, Paul M.Thomas, Jeff Toyne, Schaun Tozer, Derek Treffry, Russell Walker, Peter Warnica, John Welsman, Michael Welsman, Doug Wilde, Ari Wise, Ken Worth
Don Armstrong, Richard Bruton, Michael Ella, Asif Illyas, Paul (hong) Jun, Andrew Lauzon, Steve Lehmann, Donald Macdonald, Etienne Nadeau-‐Plamondon, Erik Olson,Simon Poole, David Ramos, Carrie Armitage, Dave Coleman, Dane Deviller, Judith Gruber-Stitzer, Alec Harrison, Anita Lubosch, Robert Lypka, Craig McConnell, Lukas Pearse, Jamie Shields, Beau Shiminsky, Joel Silver, Tom Third, Carl Vaudrin, Mauro Bellotto, Richard Evans, David Federman, Murray Fleming, Miho Hongo, Vikas Kohli, Ryan Latham, Adam White, Rob Yale, Tommy Banks, Sean James Boyer, Dave Chick, Steve Cupani, Kim Gaboury, Oliver Johnson, FM LeSieur, Catalin Marin, Alexander Mine, Jeff Morrow, Michelle Osis, Neil Parfitt, Richard Rodwell, Russell Soares, Ryner Stoetzer, Rob Teehan, Frederic Weber, Andrea Wettstein
Welcoming New Members for 2016
Mathieu Alepin, Haniya Aslam, William Baird, Jesse Barden, Jean‐Olivier Begin, Laura Bidner, Jake Butineau, Sean Cameron, Dustin Clark, Lisa Conway, Georges Couling, Georgi Despodov, Noam Fleischmann, Isaias Garcia, Anthony Giavedoni, Ray Guirguess, Lynn Hartmann, Sean Hayden, Keaton House, Toni Hueter, Jonathan Kawchuk, Jason Kenemy, Virginia Kilbertus, Alex Klingle, Riley Koenig, Sergei Kofman, Francois Lanctot, Evan MacDonald, Casey Manierka, Blake Penner, John McMillan, Emily Milling, Mauricio Morales, Brett Morreau, Kevin O’Neil, Justin Orok, Michael Paolucci, Steve Rokosh, Devin Roth, Sean Sargent, Sean Savage, Steven Schooley, Joel Schwartz, Simon Servida, Matthew Van Driel, Eugene Vasile, Andrew Winn, Erica Wong Ping Lun
Craig McConnell: Editor
Nicholas Stirling: Layout, Web
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